A summary of Georgia’s archaeological sequence

Period Time Subsistence Pattern Settlement Pattern Diagnostic Features
Post war, global economy, information age AD
1945 to Present
Corporate agriculture, international trade, service industry, and civil service Suburban-urbanization, second homes, rural abandonment Public works, transistors, interstate highways, disposable products, railroad abandonment, Teflon, computers
Depression, recovery and war AD 1929 to AD 1945 Manufacturing, farming, retailing, services, civil and military
Small towns, farmsteads, mill towns, and company towns Fiberglass, depression glass, fluorescent light, terracing, stream channelization, nylon, wire nails
growth and expansion
1870 to AD 1929
Farming, tenant farming, manufacturing, retailing Dispersed farms, tenant farms, small towns and mill towns Incandescent light, zipper, diesel engine, vacuum tube, barbed wire, gasoline car, machine-made bottles and bricks, machine-cut nails
Civil War and recovery AD 1861 to AD 1870 Farming, military service, manufacturing, retailing Farmsteads, small towns, and military camps and forts Military earthworks, internal combustion engine, ironclads, military prisons
1783 to AD 1861
Farming, plantations, retailing, manufacturing Family farmsteads, plantations, small towns, Indian Removal, land lotteries Safety pin, cotton gin, molded bricks, canals, railroads, steamboats
Revolution AD
1775 to AD 1783
Farming, trading, retailing, factoring, military service Family farmsteads, plantations, small towns, and military camps and forts Fort, earthworks, trenches, battlefields, cast iron parts, molded bricks, blown glass
1632 to AD 1775
Farming, trading, pioneering, military service, exporting-importing Family farmsteads, port towns, pioneer settlements, and Indian villages to unceded lands Molded bricks, blown glass, wrought iron nails, cast iron vessels
European contact and exploration AD 1541 to AD 1632 Farming, trading, hunting, trapping, factoring, exploring Trading outposts, missions, forts, cantonments, and smaller Indian villages Glass beads, wrought iron tools and weapons, blown glass vessels, molded bricks
Mississippian AD 900 to AD 1541 Intensive agriculture supplemented by gathering and hunting Large permanent fortified towns with many forms of public architecture, smaller communities, separate homesteads, extensive network of foot trails Temple mounds, plazas, ditches, earth lodges; corn, beans, squash; grit and shell tempered pottery as effigy bottles; small triangular projectile points
Woodland 1000 BC to AD 900 Gathering and hunting supplemented by horticulture Small, widely-dispersed villages inhabited most of the time occupying floodplains and clearing for gardens. Bow and arrow; pottery decorated by stamping, incising and impressing; pottery tempered by sand and crushed quartz; food storage pits; stone and earth burial mounds; sturdy homes
Archaic 8000 BC to 1000 BC Gathering and hunting of wild plants and animals; clearing areas in forest to attract game to new plants Larger seasonally occupied camps Atlatl (spear thrower), projectile points/knives; soapstone vessels, fiber-tempered pottery, ground stone tools, axe grinding and hammer stones
PaleoIndian >10,000 BC to 8000 BC Small game hunting; fishing, foraging, and gathering of various plants; hunting of large game extinct today: mastodon, mammoth, giant beaver, ground sloth, musk oxen Small seasonally occupied camps Lanceolate projectile points/knives; Clovis projectile points/knives, end and side scrapers, burins